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Explain Human Reproductive System
Reproduction is the process of producing new individuals of the same species by existing organisms of a species that is parents. Reproduction is important for continuation of species.
It may be asexual or sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction takes place in small organisms like hydra, amoeba, paramecium, etc. Hydra produces by budding. Animal-like amoeba, paramecium reproduces by binary fission.
Types of Reproduction
- Asexual Reproduction
- Sexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction is the process of producing new organism from a single parent without the involvement of sex cells or gametes.
Sexual reproduction is the process of producing new organism from two parents by making use of their sex cells or gametes.
In other words, sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction in which two sexes, namely, male and female are involved. The male sexual unit is known as male gametes or sperm while female sexual unit is termed as female gametes or ova.
What is human reproductive system?
Males and females have different reproductive systems. The reproductive organs of human beings that are Testis in male and ovary in female become functional only after attaining sexual maturity.
In male, sexual maturity is attained at the age of 13-14 years, but in females at the age of 10-12 years. This age is known as the age of puberty.
Puberty: It is the age at which the sex hormones (or gametes) begin to be produced and the boy or girl becomes sexually mature.
The testes and ovary produce gametes and also secrete hormones like testosterone (male hormone from testes) and estrogen and progesterone (female hormones from ovary).
Male Reproductive system
It consists of portion that produce the germ-cells and other portions that deliver the germ-cells to the site of fertilization. The main organs of male reproductive system are the following:
Testes are the main reproductive organs of male body that produce sperms. They hang outside the body in scrotal sacs as they need a temperature lower than the body temperature.
Testes also act as endocrine glands and produce male reproductive hormones (testosterone).
The sperm are carried by a long tube known as vas deferens of sperm duct into organs called seminal vesicles, where the sperm get nourished and stored.
It is the tube that carries urine or semen. Urethra carries sperms to an organ called penis which opens to the outside through a male genital pore.
It provides common passage for the urine and the semen.
It also produces fluid which is released in the urethra along with secretion of seminal vesicles. The secretion of accessory glands together with sperms is known as semen.
It is tiny bodies that consist of mainly genetic materials and a long tail which help them to move towards the female germ cell.
Female reproductive system
The female germ-cells or egg are made in the ovaries and are responsible for the production of some hormones. The main organs of female reproductive systems are:
Ovaries are the main reproductive organs of female body. They produce ova. Females are born with hundreds of undeveloped female egg cells (ova). These eggs are stored in the ovaries and release every month, after puberty.
Unused eggs dissolve and pass out during the time of menstruation. Ovaries also act like endocrine glands and produce hormones like estrogens and progesterone.
It is a pair of long convoluted tubes that carry oval or eggs from the ovary to the uterus. Through the fallopian tube, eggs cell travels to the uterus.
Each ovary is joined to the uterus by a fallopian tube. In the fallopian tube, these are very tiny hairs called cilia that help in the smooth passage of the matured egg to the uterus.
Uterus is a bag like structure that appears like an inverted pear. Its upper portion is broader whereas its lower portion is narrower called cervix. It is held in the place by ligaments and muscles.
It is inner lining or the endometrium is built and shed periodically (28 days) till pregnancy occurs. In that case, it holds the fertilized egg till it develops fully into a baby.
Cervix is a ring of muscles located at the lower portion of the uterus. It forms a barrier between the uterus and the vagina.
Vagina is an elastic and muscular canal that connects the cervix to the outside of the woman’s body. Vagina is the tube that receives the male organ during sexual intercourse.
Sexual Reproduction in Human beings
The male gametes called sperm is introduced inside the female genital tract (vagina) by the process of copulation or mating. Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube.
Sperms are highly active and move up through cervix into the uterus and then pass into the fallopian tubes. In the fallopian tube only one sperm fertilizes the ovum to form a zygote. This is known as fertilization.
Fertilization occurs only when copulation takes place during the ovulatory period. The embryonic development of the zygote begin immediately in the fallopian tube and pregnancy starts while menstruation stops.
The embryo moves down to reach the uterus. The embedding of embryo in the thick inner lining of the uterus is known as implantation.
Now, a special tissue develops between the uterine wall and the embryo (foetus) called placenta where the exchange of nutrients, oxygen and waste products take place.
The time period from the development of foetus inside the uterus till birth is known as gestation.
The act of giving birth of the fully developed foetus at the end of gestation periods is known as parturition. The development of the child inside the mother’s body takes approx 9 months.
Adolescence and Puberty
Animals have to reach up to a certain age for reproduction. In human beings the changes appear in the body after the age of around 11 years. This age is called adolescence or teen age (onset of puberty).
The changes that come are growth in height, body shape, voice in boys get significantly deeper, increase in mental, intellectual and emotional maturity, increased activity of sex glands, maturity of ovaries and testes, development of breast in girls, beard and moustaches in boys.
All these changes are controlled by hormones. Hormones are the chemicals produced by the endocrine glands that are sent to the target site by the blood.
With puberty, girls start to menstruate every 28-30 days. This is the period when egg cell matures, the uterine wall becomes thickened.
If fertilization takes place, zygote is formed and starts developing into embryo which gets implanted in the uterine wall. This is known as pregnancy.
Frequently Asked Question of Human Digestive System
- What is sexual reproduction?
Sexual reproduction needs two types of gametes, male gametes (sperm) produced in the male reproductive organs and female gametes (ova) produced in female reproductive organs.
Generally in animals, sperm from male and ovum from female fuses to form a zygote, which grows into a new organism.
- What is menstruation?
Answer: The breakdown and removal of the inner, thick, and soft lining of the uterus along with its blood vessels in the form of vaginal bleeding is known as menstruation. Menstruation is also known as menstrual flow.
- What is menstrual cycle?
Answer: The cycle of events taking place in the ovaries and uterus every 28 days or roughly 1 month and marked by the menstrual flow is called menstrual cycle in human female. Menstrual cycle is also known as sexual cycle.
- What is sex determination?
Answer: Human cells have 23 chromosomes in each cell. Out of these chromosomes, one pair is the sex chromosomes. In males the sex chromosomes are of two types known as X and Y. In female, both sex chromosomes are similar that is X and X.
All eggs cells contain (22+X) that is 23 chromosomes. A sperm may either (22+X) or (22+Y). When 22+X egg is fertilized by 22+X sperm, the zygote 44+XX will develop into a girl and if 22+X egg is fertilized by 22+Y sperm, the zygote 44+XY will develop into a boy.
- What are oviparous and viviparous?
Answer: Animals that have internal fertilization like birds but they reproduce by laying eggs are known as oviparous whereas animals that give birth to young ones are known as viviparous.
- Definition of foetus.
Answer: An embryo in which all the body parts can be identified is called a foetus.
- What is sex ratio?
Answer: Sex ratio is the ratio of the number of females to the number of males in a population. The female-male sex ratio must be maintained for a healthy society. The female child sex ratio is declining at an alarming rate in some section of our society because of reckless female feticide.
Some Important Biology Link
- The Human Brain
- Digestive System
- Parts of a Plants
- What is a Cell in Biology?
- What are Harmful effects of Microorganisms?
- Respiratory System in humans
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