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The human digestive system with diagram
The breakdown of large particles into small particles with the help of the enzyme is called digestion. The organs which are responsible for ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation, and egestion constitute the digestive system. The digestive system comprises the alimentary canal and associated digestive glands.
Digestive System with Diagram
The alimentary canal consists of the following parts:
The main organ of the human digestive system
The digestion system started with the mouth. The mouth leads into the buccal cavity. The floor of the buccal cavity has tongue-bearing taste buds (sweet, salt, sour & bitter). Man possesses teeth on both jaws. There are 32 teeth of four different types, namely incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
It is a short, conical region that lies after the mouth cavity. The pharynx is divided into two parts the nasopharynx which lies behind the nasal cavities and the oropharynx which lies behind the mouth.
It is a long, narrow, muscular tube that leads to the stomach. It is called a food pipe. The Length of the food pipe is 25 cm.
It lies below the diaphragm on the left side of the abdominal cavity and is J-shaped. The food is stored and partly digested in the stomach. Gastric gland present in the stomach.
The length of the small intestine is 6-6.25 meters. It is a convoluted tube and differentiated into three regions, duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine and is curved C-shaped; jejunum, comparatively longer and more coiled, and ileum, which is the last part of the small intestine whose inner surface is folded to form Villi, which absorbs the products of digestion. Neither digestion nor absorption of food in the Jejunum part of the small intestine.
The length of the large intestine is 1-1.25 meters. It is much shorter and wider than the small intestine and is differentiated into three regions, the caecum, which is a small rounded blind sac from which the vermiform appendix arises; the colon is the inverted U-shaped tube and the rectum opens to the exterior through the anus. Waste food excretes our body by the anus.
Digestive Glands. Various glands associated with the alimentary canal are:
Salivary Glands. The salivary glands secrete the first of the digestive juices, the saliva. There are three pairs of salivary glands namely the parotids (largest salivary gland, lie on sides of the face) sub-maxillary (lie at angles of the lower jaw), and sublingual glands (under the front part of teeth).
Gastric Glands. They are branched tubular glands that lie in the mucus membranes of the stomach. They secrete gastric juice, which is clear, acidic containing HCI, enzymes, and mucus.
It is the largest gland in man and lies below the diaphragm in the right upper part of the abdomen. The liver comprises or two lobes right and left, where the right lobe is much larger than the left lobe. The cells of the liver, i.e., hepatic cells produce bile juice which flows out of the liver through hepatic ducts forming the common bile duct and opens into the duodenum. Bile juice then flows into the gall bladder through the cystic ducts.
It is a soft lobulated gland present in between the loops of the duodenum. It secrets pancreatic juice containing enzymes that are poured into the duodenum with the help of the pancreatic duct.
- The pancreas is attached to the liver.
- It is discovered by Langerhans.
- Four types of cells are found in the pancreas: α-cell, β-cell, δ-cell, and f-cell.
- The pancreas is called a mixed gland because it produces juice, enzyme, and hormone.
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