Types of chemical reaction For Class 10

Types of chemical reaction

The important types of chemical reactions are:

  1. Combination reactions
  2. Decomposition reactions
  3. Displacement reactions
  4. Double displacement reactions
  5. Oxidation and Reduction reactions

 

  1. Combination reactions: Those reactions in which two or more substances combine to form new substances are known as combination reactions. A combination reaction is also known as a synthesis reaction.

 

                       A + B ─────> AB

 

                Ex: 2 H 2  + O 2 ─────> 2 H 2 O

 

                 Ex: 2 Na + Cl 2 ─────> 2 Na Cl

 

  1. Decomposition reactions: A reaction in which a single compound breaks down to produce two or more simpler substances that is a compound decomposes into simpler substances. It is the opposite of a combination reaction. There are three ways in which decomposition reactions can be carried out is the energy required in decombination reaction can be supplied in the following ways:

           (i) Heat

           (ii) Electricity

           (iii) Light

 

              AB ─────> A + B

 

       Ex: Ca Co 3 ─────> Ca O + CO 2

 

 Ex: 2 Fe SO 4 ─────> Fe 2 O 3 + SO 2 + SO 3

 

  1. Displacement reaction: A chemical reaction in which a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from its aqueous salt solution. It is also called a substitution reaction.

 

                               X + Y Z ─────> X Z + Y

 

      Ex: Zn + Cu  SO 4 ─────> Zn SO 4 + Cu

 

      Ex: Fe + Cu SO 4 ─────> Fe SO 4 + Cu

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  1. Double Displacement Reaction: A chemical reaction in which ions get exchanged between two reactants that form a new compound is called a double displacement reaction. It is also called a metathesis reaction.

 

                  X Y + Z A ─────> X A + Z Y

 Ex: BaCl 2 + NaSO4 ─────> BaSO4 + NaCl

 

Precipitation Reaction: Any reaction in which an insoluble solid is formed that separates from the solution is called a precipitation reaction.

 

Ex: If barium chloride solution is added to copper sulphate solution, then a white precipitate of barium sulphate is produced along with copper chloride solution:

  BaCl 2 +CuSO4 ─────> BaSO4 + CuCl 2

Oxidation Reactions:

(i) The addition of oxygen to a substance is called oxidation.

(ii) The removal of hydrogen from a substance is also called oxidation.

 

Reduction Reaction:

(i) The addition of hydrogen to a substance is called reduction.

(ii) The removal of oxygen from a substance is also called reaction.

   CuO + H 2 ─────> Cu + H2O

 

Redox Reaction: The oxidation and reduction reactions are also called redox reactions. In the name ‘redox’ the term ‘red’ Stands for ‘reduction’ and ‘ox’ stands for oxidation.

 

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