What is agriculture explain?
Agriculture is a primary activity. Primary activities are related to the extraction and production of natural resources. Apart from agriculture, mining, fishing, etc. are also primary activities. Secondary activities are related to the processing and manufacturing of goods. Iron and steel industry, the cloth-making industry, etc. are examples of secondary industries. Tertiary activities are connected to transport, trade, banking, insurance, and advertising.
About 50% of the world’s population is in agriculture. In India, 50% to 60% of the people are engaged in agricultural activities. The agricultural system depends upon physical and socio-economic conditions of a particular country.
Some of the other major cultures are the following:
- Horticulture: Cultivation of vegetables, flowers, and fruits for commercial use.
- Sericulture: Related to the rearing of silkworms.
- Viticulture: Cultivation of grapes.
- Pisciculture: Related to the breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds.
Wheat, rice, maize, and millets are major food crops. Jute and cotton are fiber crops. Tea and coffee are plantation crops.
Rice is the main food of the countries of the tropical zone. It needs high temperature (25 degrees Celsius), high humidity, and rainfall (100cm-200cm). Alluvial soil is best suited for rice cultivation. China, India, Thailand, Japan, Sri Lanka, and Egypt are the major rice-producing countries. China is the largest producer of rice. In India, major rice-producing states are West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Bihar.
Wheat is grown at a moderate temperature. It is grown in both temperate and tropical zones. It requires rainfall during the growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest. Well-drained loamy and alluvial soil is best suited for wheat. China, India, USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, France, and Australia are major wheat-producing countries. In India, major wheat-producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, and Madhya Pradesh.
Millets are grown on less fertile and sandy soil. It requires less rainfall and moderate temperature. Jowar, bajra, ragi are major millet crops in India. China, India, Nigeria, and Niger are the leading millets-producing countries. In India, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, and Maharashtra are the major millets-producing states.
Maize grows in moderate temperature, rainfall (100cm), and lots of sunshine. It requires well-drained fertile soils. USA, Mexico, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, and India are major maize-producing countries. In India, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh are major maize-producing states.
Cotton needs high temperature, moderate rainfall, two-hundred frost-free days, and bright sunshine for its growth. Black soil is best suited for the growth of cotton. China, India, USA, Pakistan, Brazil, and Egypt are the leading producers of cotton. It is one of the main raw materials for the cotton textile industry. In India, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu are the best major cotton-producing states.
Cotton is the trade of ancient India. Mumbai is called the cotton polis city of India. The first cotton mill started in Mumbai in 1854.
Jute is grown in the tropical zone of high temperatures, heavy rainfall, and humid climate. It is also known as the ‘golden fiber’. Alluvial soil is best suited for jute crop. India and Bangladesh are leading producers of jute. In India, West Bengal, Tripura, and Bihar are major jute-producing states.
Coffee is also a tropical crop, which needs warm and wet climate and well-drained loamy soil. Hill slopes with tree shades are required for the suitable growth of coffee. Brazil is the largest producer of coffee in the world. Columbia, India, and Peru are the other main coffee producers in the world. In India, Karnataka is the largest coffee-producing state.
Tea plantation needs moderate temperature, well-distributed high rainfall, well-drained loamy soil, and gentle slopes for good growth. Kenya, India, China, and Sri Lanka are the leading producers of tea in the world. In India, Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya, and Sikkim are main tea-producing states.
Soil is the mixture of rock debris and organic materials which develop on the earth’s surface. Mineral particles, humus water, and air are the main component of soil. The major factors that affect the formation of soil are relief, parent material, climate, vegetation, time, and human activities.
Types of Crops
Kharif Crops: Onset of monsoon. Rice, maize, cotton, jute, groundnut, soyabean, jowar, and millets are the types of Kharif crops.
- Sowing = June – July
- Harvesting = October – November
Rabi Crops: It required a well settle irrigation facility. Wheat, mustard, barley, oilseed, pulses, potato, gram, and pea are types of Ravi crops.
- Sowing = October – November
- Harvesting = March – April
Zaid Crops: Flowers, fruits, and vegetables are types of Zaid crops.
- Sowing = March – April
- Harvesting = May – June
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