Difference between the Chemical Properties of Metals and Nonmetals
Chemical properties of Metals
The important chemical properties of metals are:
- The reaction of Metals with oxygen: Metals react with oxygen to form metal oxides. Metals oxides are basic in nature.
- The density of metals is usually high.
- Metals form an alloy with other metals or non-metals.
- Some metals react with air and corrode. For e.g. Iron.
- Metals like sodium and potassium are stored in kerosene oil as they react with air in seconds. They are highly reactive metals.
Metal + oxygen ─────> Metal oxide
2Mg + O2 ─────> 2MgO
4Al + 3O2 ─────> 2Al2O3
Amphoteric oxide: Those metal oxides which show basically as well as acidic behavior are known as amphoteric oxides.
Ex: Al2O3, ZnO
- The reaction of metals with water: Metals produce metal oxide and hydrogen gas while reacting with water. All metals do not react with water. However, highly reactive metals like sodium and potassium react with water violently and an exothermic reaction takes place where the hydrogen immediately catches fire.
- Aluminum (Al), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) do not react with either cold water or hot water. Metals like lead, silver, silver, and gold do not react with water or even steam.
Metal + water ─────> metal hydroxide + Hydrogen
2K + 2H2O ─────> 2KOH + H2 + Heat
Metal + Steam ─────> Metal oxide + Hydrogen
Mg + H2O ─────> MgO + H2
- The reaction of metals with dilute acid: Metals react with water to form metal salt and hydrogen. Metals usually displace hydrogen from dilute acids. Only the less reactive metals like copper, silver, and gold do not displace hydrogen from dilute acids.
Metal + Dilute acid ─────> Metal salt + Hydrogen
Mg + 2HCl ─────> MgCl2 + H2
Zn + 2HCl ─────> ZnCl2 + H2
Cu + HCl ─────> No reaction
- Metals react with Salt solutions: A more reactive metal displaces a less reactive metal from its salt solution.
CuSO4 + Zn ─────> ZnSO4 + Cu
- Metals react with Chlorine: Metals react with chlorine to form ionic chlorides.
Ca + Cl2 ─────> CaCl2
- Metals react with Hydrogen: Most of the metals do not combine with hydrogen. Only a few reactive metals like potassium, calcium, and magnesium react with hydrogen to form metal hydrides.
Ca + H2 ─────> CaH2
The chemical reaction of Non-Metals
- Non-metals react with oxygen to form acidic or neutral oxides.
S + O 2 ─────> SO2
2H2 + O2 ─────> 2H2O
- Non-metals do not react with steam or water to evolve hydrogen gas.
- Non-metal do not react with dilute acid.
- A more reactive non-metal displaces a less reactive non-metal from its solution of salt.
2NaBr + Cl2 ─────> 2NaCl + Br2
- Non-metals react with chlorine to form covalent chlorides which are non-electrolytes.
H2 + Cl2 ─────> 2HCl
- Non-metals react with hydrogen to form covalent hydrides.
N2 + 3H2 ─────> 2NH3
The Reactivity series of metals: The arrangement of metals in a vertical column in the order of decreasing reactivities is called the reactivity series of metals. Reactivity series of metals is also called activity series of metals.
I hope you like this article “Chemical Properties of Metals and Nonmetals for class 8 and 10″.