Allotropes of carbon for class 10

Four Allotropes of carbon

The various physical forms in which an element can exist are called allotropes of the elements. The four allotropes of carbon are:

  1. Diamond
  2. Graphite
  3. Buckminsterfullerene
  4. Graphene

Diamond

It is the hardest substance having extraordinary brilliance. If we burn diamonds in oxygen, then only carbon dioxide gas is formed and nothing is left behind. This shows that the diamond is made up of carbon only.

Allotropes of carbon

           

  • Diamond is the hardest and strongest allotrope of carbon.
  • It is a bad conductor of electricity due to the absence of free electrons.
  • Diamond is used in glass cutting and paper cutting. A black diamond is used in mirror cutting.
  • The melting point of the diamond is 4726.
  • The density of the diamond is 5.3-5.4 g/c m 3.
  • The hybridization of the diamond is s p 3.
  • The rigid structure of the diamond makes it a very hard substance.
  • Diamonds are used for making jewelry.
  • Sharp-edged diamonds are used by eye surgeons as a tool to remove the cataract from eyes with great precision.
  • It can be made artificially by subjecting pure carbon to very high temperatures and pressure.

Structure of diamond and graphite

allotrops of carbon

Graphite

It is a grayish-black opaque substance. Graphite is lighter than a diamond. If we burn graphite in oxygen, then only carbon dioxide gas is formed and nothing is left behind. This shows that graphite is made up of carbon only.

Allotropes of carbon

 

  • It is also called a black lead.
  • It is a good conductor of electricity.
  • The melting point of graphite is 3527 
  • The density of graphite is 2.23 g/c m 3.
  • The hybridization of graphite is s p 2.
  • It is used in pencil lead.
  • It is used as a lubricant.
  • It is used in a nuclear reactor as a control rod.
  • It is used for making carbon electrodes or graphite electrodes in dry cells and electric arcs.

Buckminsterfullerene

Buckminsterfullerene is an allotrope of carbon-containing clusters of 60 carbon (C60) atoms joined together to form spherical molecules.

Buckminsterfullerene image

                     

  • It is also called buckyball/fullerene.
  • It is a good conductor of electricity.
  • The melting point of buckminsterfullerene is 600
  • The hybridization of buckminsterfullerene is s p 2.
  • It is used in nanotechnology / nano-tubes.
  • It is used for drug delivery in human beings.
  • Formula of buckminsterfullerene is C 60.
  • It is dark solid at room temperature.

Graphene

It is the latest discovered allotrope of carbon.

  • Graphene is discovered by Gill.
  • Graphene is a good conductor of electricity.
  • The hybridization of graphene is s p 2.
  • The melting point of graphene is 3000
  • Graphene is used in making mobile touch screens, LED TV touch, and bulletproof jackets.

Graphene image

 

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